What is String in Computer Programming? (Implementation in C)


  To familiarize students with declaration, definition, and usage of Strings in C. Also to practice many Standard Library String Functions  


Turbo C IDE 
man program strings


Writing C program to perform the following tasks
       Declare and initialize string character array
       Copy one string into another using strcpy and strncpy standard Library String Functions
       Appends one string to the other string using strcatand strncatStandard Library String Functions
string is a series of characters treated as a single unit. A string may include letters, digits, and various special characters such as +, -, *, / and $. String literals or string constants in C are written in double quotations marks.
A string in C is an array of characters ending in the null character (‘\0’). There is a null character at end of each and every string which indicates the ending or termination of a string. Format String specifier is %s in printf and scanf. The value of the string is the address of its first character. 
Declaration and initialization of string can be done by using either a character array or a variable of type char pointer as shown below:
Char color[] = “blue”;
Char *colorptr = “blue”;

In which each initializes a variable to the string “blue”. The first declaration creates five-element array color containing the characters ‘b’, ‘l’, ‘u’, ‘e’, and ‘\0’. The second declaration creates a pointer variable colorptr that points to the string “blue” somewhere in memory.

The declaration and initialization of string char color[] = “blue” could also be written as:
 char color[] = { ‘b’, ‘l’, ‘u’, ‘e’, ‘\0’ };.

Step 1: Create a New C Program File and save it as lab10.c
Step 2: Write the following code as shown in figures below

c code for strings

Figure 24 (a): Strings in C

Step 3: Save file again, compile and run it for required output as shown in the figure below

strings output

Figure 24 (b): Strings in C

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